Artificial graphenes: Dirac matter beyond condensed matter


G. Montambaux, “Artificial graphenes: Dirac matter beyond condensed matter”, COMPTES RENDUS PHYSIQUE, vol. 19, p. 285-305, 2018.


After the discovery of graphene and of its many fascinating properties, there has been a growing interest for the study of ``artificial graphenes{''}. These are totally different and novel systems that bear exciting similarities with graphene. Among them are lattices of ultracold atoms, microwave or photonic lattices, ``molecular graphene{''} or new compounds like phosphorene. The advantage of these structures is that they serve as new playgrounds for measuring and testing physical phenomena that may not be reachable in graphene, in particular the possibility of controlling the existence of Dirac points (or Dirac cones) existing in the electronic spectrum of graphene, of performing interference experiments in reciprocal space, of probing geometrical properties of the wave functions, of manipulating edge states, etc. These cones, which describe the band structure in the vicinity of the two connected energy bands, are characterized by a topological ``charge{''}. They can be moved in the reciprocal space by appropriate modification of external parameters (pressure, twist, sliding, stress, etc.). They can be manipulated, created or suppressed under the condition that the total topological charge be conserved. In this short review, I discuss several aspects of the scenarios of merging or emergence of Dirac points as well as the experimental investigations of these scenarios in condensed matter and beyond. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Academie des sciences.