S. Chen, et al., “Competing Fractional Quantum Hall and Electron Solid Phases in Graphene”, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol. 122, p. 026802, 2019.Abstract
We report experimental observation of the reentrant integer quantum Hall effect in graphene, appearing in the N = 2 Landau level. Similar to high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, the effect is due to a competition between incompressible fractional quantum Hall states, and electron solid phases. The tunability of graphene allows us to measure the B-T phase diagram of the electron solid phase. The hierarchy of reentrant states suggests spin and valley degrees of freedom play a role in determining the ground state energy. We find that the melting temperature scales with magnetic field, and construct a phase diagram of the electron liquid-solid transition.